Five key steps in quality data modeling


Many business people consider data modeling to be a black art used by the enterprise IT department which does not bring any tangible business benefits and is simply designed to make people feel confused and inferior.

Sadly, many IT departments actually promote this idea and for their, the data modeling they perform fails to deliver real benefits – yet they shout slogans about it. Spread out It doesn’t have to be this way.

When done correctly, data modeling can bring tremendous business benefits to any enterprise, including:

  • High quality information for all business activities
  • Easy access to this information
  • Strong information system
  • Better identification of product, profit and cost centers.
  • Eliminate useless and unnecessary information
  • Costs decreased and revenues increased

How do you do data analysis and modeling “correctly”? Where do you start

The following two easy (though) Basic principleslPrinciples will guide you.

Rule 1: Use Absolutely These are the sources from which you derived yours Business work Extracting all information for data modeling

Principle 2: Only Model data that is needed to directly support the business functions of the enterprise.

Starting with Rule 1 Make sure it suits you Rule 2.

The integrated modeling method provides a foolproof technique for extracting resources from candidates’ characteristics, attributes and relationships from which business functions were extracted. Beginners and experienced analysts alike can use this technique.

These sources include:

  • Copies of tapped analysis interviews with senior business managers.
  • Type additional information notes from these interviews.
  • Function titles and descriptions developed during function modeling.
  • Flow diagram of information developed in analysis workshops


Basic technique:

Step 1 Work through your data source (which is better to keep in electronic format). Finding and sketching all the “celestial structures”, because they are “candidate” status.

Step 2 – Include all these candidates and the associations between them in a separate document.

Step 3 – Transform the organizations and associations of these candidates into real institutions, attributes and relationships.

Step 4 – Build an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD).

Step 5 – Design the relevant database from ERD.


The first steps in the technique are best demonstrated by an example.

Below is part of a transcript of an interview with a business manager, all written in it.

“We got it احکامات For us Products From us Customers Day Before they are needed Delivery. We Check Quantity of the raw material Need Make up Products And, if necessary, we Order More From us Suppliers. We Make up Our Products Each fresh Morning. We Make Delivery To us Customers Many Times each one Day. I Finished Of each Week We Invoice each one User for the Delivery Made for them during Week. We accept Payment Or Remittances From Customers By cash And Check Only “.

The whole structure of the name has been compromised.

The first sentence is:

“We got it احکامات For us Products From us Customers Day* Before they are needed Delivery.

Using one name at a time at the bottom of the sentence, we find the following list of candidate organizations and associations.

Order [means of ordering] Product

Product [ordered by means of] Order

Order [received from] User

User [the source of] Order

Product [delivered by means of] Delivery

Delivery [means of delivering] Product

User [recipient of] Delivery

Delivery [made to] User

Note: Day * is an attribute of the order, probably “Date”.

Because every association is bilateral, when we document an association, we immediately reverse it.

Working perfectly on the above transcript gives us a complete list (flowing alphabetically):

Baking [to produce] Product

User [billed by means of] Invoice

User [recipient of] Delivery

User [source of] Payment

User [the source of] Order

Delivery [made to] User

Delivery [means of delivering] Product

Delivery [of products billed on] Invoice tbv

Invoice [a billing for] Product

Invoice [a means of billing] User

Invoice [billing for goods delivered by] Delivery tbv

Invoicing period

Order [means of ordering] Product

Order [means of replenishing] raw material

Order [placed with] Supplier

Order [received from] User

Payment [accepted from] User

Payment [made by] Payment method

Payment method [valid means of making] Payment

Product [billed for on] Invoice

Product [delivered by means of] Delivery

Product [ordered by means of] Order

Product [produced by] Baking

Product [requirement for] raw material

raw material [quantified by means of] Stock check

raw material [replenished by means of] Order

raw material [required to bake] Product

raw material [sourced from] Supplier

Stock check [to establish quantity of] raw material

Supplier [recipient of] Order

Supplier [the source of] raw material

This brief summary gives us eleven unique candidate organizations and thirty (15 x 2) candidate associations.

Rational organization

Candidate lists need a little more work to remove false or violent institutions. An excellent example of a candidate’s item that is not a suitable entity is the “invoice”. An invoice is probably the most common business item that has been incorrectly modeled as an item. An invoice is a piece of paper that represents a business or entity, such as a sale (of one or more products) or a billing (for one or more sales). These are the actual data entities that should be the sample – not the pieces of paper.

Transforming associations into relationships

The associations we have identified should now also be rationalized and transformed into “relationships”. The associations only tell us that the two organizations are affiliated and give us a suggested name for the association. A relationship gives us all the information we need to know about the association. It includes

  • The exact name of the relationship
  • Whether it is mandatory or optional
  • Its “degree”, that is, if the relationship is one to one, more than one or many more


Relationships must be read in the following ways:

each one Order It is necessary Received by One and only one User

each one User Probably By One or more احکامات

Relationships are always two-way, so there should always be two entries that are in both directions.

Items in Bold Above are the names of entities.

Displays the risk index option. Written as a mandatory relationship It is necessary, Optional Probably.

There are objects in the diagonal Relationship names. They must be named so that they can be preceded by “must be” or “may be.”

The terms “one and only one” and “one or more” describe the degree of relationship.

Entity Relationship Diagram

It is important to know all the previous information but it is almost impossible to see and use without any construction Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD). It is the only powerful model to use for understanding the data structure of any enterprise and is an essential element in designing a quality database.

Effective layout

In an integrated modeling method, on an ERD, the “many” parts of a relationship are represented by a symbol, which is similar, and is called a “crow’s foot.” If this symbol is reversed, we get the “dead crow”. This gives rise to a very powerful, yet simple, principle for achieving a truly efficient setting for any ERD, which is “Dead Cruise Fly East.”

The main result of this layout is that all high volume and volatile entities will appear at the top and left of the ERD and all low volume and more permanent entities will appear at the bottom and right.

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